Jean Piaget’s studies about child development psychology stages continue to shape the field of psychology up until now. Among his contributions, most were centered in child development. By observing them as they grow, he was able to come up with a theory.
According to him, children start as “little scientists.” Through many interactions, they begin to understand the world around them, even without help of adults. This feature explains Piaget’s concepts and how you can use them to help children grow and develop.
First Child Development Psychology Stages: Sensorimotor Stage (0 To 2 Years Old)
Infants start to understand their environment using their movements and senses. Basic reflex movements are usually demonstrated in this stage. Such examples would be the waving of arms and thumb sucking. They also begin using their basic senses such as touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Additionally, they begin to differentiate between what they see and how situations make them feel.
Object permanence is the main achievement an infant reach during this stage. It means that the child is aware if an object still exists even though it’s not immediately there. It is a very important milestone because the child now has the ability to form mental images of an object rather than reacting in their immediate environment.
Preoperational Stage (2 To 7 Years Old)
The child continues to build object permanence and abstract ways of thinking. It also includes the development of words and behaviors to represent things they experienced in the past. Moreover, the child may be egocentric. That means they can only understand the world within themselves and not from other’s points of view. In this stage, the child displays five key behaviors:
When the child has the ability to mimic someone, even though that “someone” is not immediately present in front of them.
When the child starts to use things that project its particular property onto another; for example, using a stick as a sword.
When a child starts to make scribbles into more accurate abstract representations of things. It involves both symbolic and imitation play.
When the child begins to imagine or recall objects in their minds. They may repeatedly mention their names to secure these associations inside their head.
Verbal Evocation Of Events
When the child starts to use language to describe things and events from the past.
Concrete Operational Stage (7 To 11 Years Old)
It is another major point in a child’s development. During this stage, the child builds and masters their abstract thought. They become more rational with others as well. Additionally, the child starts to develop logical rules to objects, but no in abstract concepts yet. This stage also includes the ability to classify objects, the ability to understand logical orders, and the understanding of the concept of conservation.
This means that an object can change in physical properties but still remain the same. For example, the change of appearance of water when poured from one container to another. Even though the water changed form, it still the same water as before. The child is now aware of these things.
Formal Operational Stage (11 Years To Adulthood)
During this stage, the child learns more sophisticated forms of logic. They then use these abilities to understand more abstract concepts and to solve problems. They also acquire the ability to analyze their environment and make deductions like the ability to create theories about different situations. These knowledges are further used to create new theories and predictions about the future.
More Important Concepts For You To Know
The schema is one of the most important aspects of cognitive development. It is a mental template the child uses to further understand the world. It comes from the child’s experiences that is associated with events, objects, and concepts.
Equilibration is the driving force of the child to continue through the stages of development. When a child uses pre-existing schemas to understand the world around them, their world views can be inaccurate at first. Equilibration motivates a child to absorb more information and be back in the solid state of equilibrium.